Electron, proton, neutron, plasma, and all about chemistry

Posted by Cancer Care on Thursday, July 15, 2010

All normal matter composed of atoms or subatomic components that make up atoms, protons, electrons, and neutrons. Atoms can be combined to produce more complex forms of matter such as ions, molecules, or crystals. Structure of the world in which we live day-to-day and the nature of matter we interact with are determined by the properties of chemical substances and their interactions. Steel harder than iron because the atoms are bound in the crystal structure is more rigid. Wood burning or experiencing rapid oxidation because it can react spontaneously with oxygen in a chemical reaction if it is above a certain temperature.

proton is a subatomic particle with positive charge of 1.6 × 10-19 coulomb and a mass of 938 MeV (1.6726231 × 10-27 kg, or about 1800 times the mass of an electron). An atom usually consists of a number of protons and neutrons residing in the core (center) of atoms, and the number of electrons surrounding the nucleus. In electrically neutral atoms, the number of protons will be equal to the number of electrons. Number of protons in the nucleus will usually determine the chemical properties of an atom. The nucleus is often also known as nuclei, nuclei, or nucleons (In English: nucleon), and the reaction of or in connection with the atomic nucleus is called nuclear reactions.

electron is half-integer values in units of h, which means that it includes fermions. Electron antiparticles called positrons, which are identical with electrons, except that he is positively charged. When an electron collides with a positron, both possibilities can be mutually berhambur or destroyed completely, that require a pair (or more) photons of gamma rays. Electrons, which belong to the first generation lepton family of particles, participating in gravitational interactions, electromagnetic interactions and weak interactions. Just as all matter, electrons have the properties of particle and bath tub wave (wave-particle duality), so that he can collides with other particles and berdifraksi like light. Therefore electrons including fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.

Neutron or a neutron is an uncharged subatomic particles (neutral) and has a mass of 940 MeV / c ² (1.6749 × 10-27 kg, slightly heavier than the proton. Spins is ½. The nucleus of most atoms (all but the most common isotope of hydrogen , which consists of a proton), consisting of protons and neutrons.

Substances tend to be classified based on the energy, phase, or chemical composition. Materials can be classified in four phases, the sequence of which has the lowest energy is the solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Of the four types of this phase, the phase of the plasma can only be found in outer space in the form of stars, because their energy needs are very large. Solids have a fixed structure at room temperature that can defy gravity or other weak force that tries to change this. Liquids have a bond that is limited, without structure, and will flow with gravity. Gas does not have a bond and act as free particles.

Meanwhile, the plasma consists only of ions that move freely; supply excess energy prevents these ions into the particle elements together. One way to distinguish the first three phases is the volume and shape: roughly, own a solid substance and form of a fixed volume, liquid fixed-volume but without a fixed form, while the gas does not have either a fixed volume or shape.

Plasma is an ionized gas, the gas that is already lost elektron2nya. We know that an element consists of an electron and the nucleus (consisting of protons and neutrons). In solids, atom2 bound to one another to form molecules, which masing2 bound in a strong chemical bond. In solids, molekul2 bound in weak chemical bonds, and the gas, molekul2 separated from each other without any chemical bond. Now in the plasma, unsur2 is no longer united to form molecules, and the loss elektron2nya unsur2. So in the plasma, there is a "soup" consisting of nuclei and electrons. Because plasma has many free electrons, the plasma can be a very good conductor. Examples are fluorescent lamps or plasma display computer.

Water (H2O) as a liquid at room temperature because its molecules are bound by intermolecular force called hydrogen bonding. On the other hand, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas state at room temperature and standard pressure, because its molecules are bound with bipolar interaction (dipole) is much weaker. Hydrogen bonds in water have enough energy to maintain the water molecules to not separate from each other, but not to flow, which makes liquid in the temperature between 0 ° C to 100 ° C at sea level. Lowering the temperature or more energy forms which allow the organization more closely, resulting in a solid substance, and releases energy. Increased energy will melt the ice although the temperature will not change until all the liquid ice. Increasing water temperature in turn will cause it to boil (see heat of vaporization) when there is enough energy to overcome the intermolecular attractions and allows the molecules to move away from one another.

Scientists who study the chemistry is often called chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more subdisciplines. Chemistry is taught in secondary schools are often called "general chemistry" and is intended as an introduction to many basic concepts and to give students tools to continue on to the subject follows. Many concepts presented at this level is often considered incomplete and technically inaccurate. However, it is an incredible tool. Chemists regularly use tools and a simple and elegant explanation of this in their work, because it proved able to accurately create a model of chemical reactivity is highly variable.

In the history of chemistry is a new development, but science has its roots in alchemy that has been practiced for centuries throughout the world.

Maybe all this time you just know with the title Chemistry, but if the chemistry is ...?
Chemistry is one of the areas belonging to the natural sciences, the general size of the chemistry of learning everything about the material covering the composition, structure, properties and changes and the energy that accompanies such changes.

1. The composition of matter of any material-forming components and comparison of the number of each component in the material analyzed.
2. Structure of particle-particle of matter that is the author of matter, how the particles are so small that join to form large-sized material
3. Material properties which include physical properties of matter and the appearance and chemical properties include a tendency to change
4. Material changes are chemical changes that produce new substances
5. Energy that accompany chemical changes that accompany the energy which is the number of material changes and the origin of that energy.
May be useful for us all. Thanks

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